INTRODUCTION TO LABORATORY PHYSICS 7 HOURS
1.ANALYSIS & PRESENTATION OF LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS (5 hours)
A. ANALYSIS OF ERRORS 2.5 HOURS
Importance of Error Analysis theory
Measurements
Actual valueTrue value
ProbabilityDistributions of measurement results
True errorUncertaintyRelative Error
BiasRandom errors
Instrumental uncertainty
MeanAverage Errorbias
Other statistical moments
CISignificant digits Scientific presentation of resultsRounding
Error propagation
Estimates of mean and error
Examples of calculations gcc and gfortran
Examples of actual measurement examples
V.LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS 2.5 HOURS
Graphs in scientific presentation
Presentations (trends) Standardequations
Slope of straight line Experimental definitions
CurvesCommon types
TangentExperimental definition
slope at pointExperimental Search
Adjusting a straight line
Method of least squaresx2LikelihoodWeighting of the results
Spearman's coefficient r2
Estimation of errors
Adjusting polynomial coefficients
Multiple regressionStepwise regression
Other methods (PCA, Multivariate methods, etc.)
Examples of actual measurements
2. SENSORS IN LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS (2 hours)
Measurements of electrical systems
A.COIL MULTIMETERS 0.5 HOURS
Fundamental physical principles
Description
Operating Principle
Use as multimeter as amperometers and voltometers
Extending the multimeter measuring range
Select the most suitable voltometer
Measuring Voltage with Multimeter
Current measurement with multimeter
B.OSCILLOSCOPE 1 HOUR
Description & parts
Electronic gun
Generator
Amplifiers of horizontal & vertical deviations
Adjusting the beam intensity
Beam deflection systemselectrostatic, magnetic
Basic operation buttons
Measuring Angles with the oscilloscope
DC voltage measurement
AC voltage measurement
Compositioncontribution mutual vertical oscillations LissajousCurves
Measurement of frequency through time difference
Measurement of requency through Lissajous curves
G.SENSORS 0.5 HOURS
deformation sensors
pressure sensors
temperature sensors
humidity sensor
LABORATORY ENGINEERING 22 HOURS
3.KINETICS OF BODIES & SYSTEMS (6 hours)
A.Dynamics 4 HOURS
Speed
Acceleration
Smooth linear motion
Newton's laws
Linear variable motion
Mechanical movement of body and body systems
Typical examples
B. Energy 1 HOUR
Workenergy
Theorem of kinetic energy
Conservative forces
C. Gravity 1 HOUR
Acceleration of gravity
gravity field
Intensity of gravitational field
Free body drop
Laboratory calculation of gravitational acceleration through freefall
4.OSCILLATIONS & WAVES (16 hours)
A.MECHANICAL OSCILLATIONS 7 HOURS
Springs and Hooke's Law
Harmonic oscillation spring
Fixedoscillation relative to natural frequency
Oscillation spring system
simple pendulum
Free vibration pendulum
Descending oscillating pendulumimpact resistance
flow materials internal friction
Quality factor of oscillation
Laboratory calculation sizes through oscillating body
Laboratory calculation of gravitational acceleration through vibration
Laboratory calculation of vibration resistance
Molecular background of oscillatory behaviortension, compression and torsion
V. WAVES 7 HOURS
Harmonic waves
Equation of harmonic wave
Phase velocity and group velocity
Equation of wave
Harmonics and wave energy
T Waves in threedimensional space
Geometric representation
Energy density and wave intensity
Equation of plane waves
Spherical wave equation
Attenuation of elastic waves
Acoustic waves
Nature of acoustic waves
Fourier analysis
Unit db and dbm
Laboratory calculation of attenuation coefficient of waves
G.NORMAL OSCILLATION MODES 2 HOURS
Normal oscillations of many particles system
Normal oscillations of elastic string
Details of natural musical body
Laboratory study of normal oscillation modes
ELECTRIC POWER 8 HOURS
5.FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL DATA (2 hours)
A.ELECTRIC RESISTANCE 1 HOUR
Definition
Measuring resistance with multimeter
Measuring resistance with voltmeter and ammeterminimum measurement errors
Resistance parallel to the voltmeter
Resistor in series with the ammeter
Maximum resistance determination of measurable
B.ELECTRIC SOURCES 0.5 HOURS
Electromotive force
Internal sourcepolar voltage resistance
ODRinduced mechanical moving conductor pattern
Electrolytic potential depolarization electrodes
Accumulators and
Lead accumulator
Nickel alkaline accumulator
Galvanic cells
Nonrechargeable batteries
C.CAPACITORS 0.5 HOURS
Extendedlocalized electrostatic fields
Localized field capacity
Definitions
Units of measurement
Energy and energy density of localized electrostatic field
Forms of capacitors
6. FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS (6 hours)
A.RC CIRCUIT 2 HOURS
Charging capacitor
Decharging capacitor
Time constant RCstatistical significance
Transition behavior of RC circuit
Differential load of RC circuit
B.RL CIRCUIT 0.5 HOURS
RL time constantstatistical significance
Transition behaviour of RL circuit
RLC CIRCUITS 3.5 HOURS
Impedance
Definitions
Transition behaviour RLC circuit
Frequency
Supercritical depreciation
critical damping
Subcritical damping
Comparison of three types of depreciation
Harmonically excited RLC circuits
Forced oscillations
Relationship quality factor and resonance curves
Physical significance of the quality factor
RLC circuit in parallel
Maximum impedance
Maximum power
PHYSICS OF SOLID & ELECTRONIC PHYSICS 12 HOURS
A.THEORY 6 HOURS
Particles & Waves
De Broglie waves
Equation of Scrhoendinger
Linear energy spectrum persons
Quantum numbers
Atomic physics concepts
Free energy spectrum and electron beam
Fundamental and excited individual situation
Energy bands
Energy spectrum of electrons in a crystal
Distinction conductorinsulatorsemiconductor
Electrical conductivity of semiconductors
intrinsic semiconductors
Semiconductors impurities
Effective electron mass
Holes and electrons
Release and reconnection bodies
Contact pn
Contact pn in thermal equilibrium
contact potential
Contact pn under the influence of external electro field
B.Electron emission from METALS 1 HOUR
Function FermiDirac distribution
Thermionic electron emission
Laboratory study thermionic electron emission from metal
C.OTHER SEMICONDUCTORS 3 HOURS
Photoelectric phenomenon
Internal photoelectric effect
Einstein's photoelectric equation
photodiodes
LED behaviour
Non illuminated LED
Illuminated LED
saturation current
Dark current
Characteristic curve of photodiode
Photoelectric cell
Characteristic curves of photocells
Solar cell
Solar element under load
D.DIODS 1 HOUR
Laboratory characteristic of electronholes
Laboratory characteristic Zener diode
E.LASER 1 HOUR
Wave and particle nature of light
contribution light
Contribution coherent light barrier
Polarization of light
Laser radiation
Reverse populations metastable state
Laser ruby
Laser HeNe
Laser radiation properties
Laser applications
Laboratory study laser light contribution in dam
Laboratory study of light polarization
ELECTROMAGNETISM 11 HOURS
A.RELATIVE MOVEMENTS FIELD 2 HOURS
Properties of EM forces
Movement in standing EM fields
Sliding in curves and non uniform magnetic fields
Movement in varying EM fields
Earth radiation belts
V.AMPERE'S & GAUSS'S LAWS 2 HOURS
Law of Ampere
Gauss law
Forces between current carrying conductors
G. MUTUAL INDUCTION & inductance 3 HOURS
Faraday law
Displacement current
Selfinduction
Conjugated fields
Magnetic field energy
D.MAXWELL EQUATIONS 4 HOURS
Maxwell equations in vacuum without sources and sources
Magnetic field and magnetic induction
Electric field and dielectric displacement
Dissemination of EM fields in conductors
